Digital Marketing of Political Parties in Turkey

Ramazan Aslan, PhD*

* Assistant Prof. at the Department of Business at Adıyaman University,


The only legitimate way for the political parties to get power in democratic countries is to achieve victory in the elections. In order to get more votes than the rival parties and thus win the election, political parties must offer political products that will meet the needs of the voters. In terms of determining the right political products, political parties need to be in constant communication and interaction with the voters to understand the needs of the voters. With the developing technology, new communication channels have emerged. Digital marketing channels, which are widely used mainly in marketing, attracted the attention of political parties over time and started to be used to communicate with their voters. Digital marketing channels, used extensively, present a significant opportunity for political parties to reach current and potential voters. In this study, digital marketing channels used by all political parties represented in the Turkish Grand National Assembly will be examined by the content analysis method. Thus, the usage rates of digital marketing in the political field will be comparatively revealed.

Keywords: Digital Marketing, Political Parties, Customers, Voters, Turkey


Throughout the history of humanity, different forms of government have existed for societies to live together and in prosperity. Democracy, which can be defined as the people’s self-government, is one of the most widely used forms of government today. In countries with a democratic administration, the people vote for the political actors they see fit to govern themselves, thereby ensuring that they come to power. Political actors who want to be in power have to produce political products that can meet the wishes and needs of the people. Therefore, political actors need to collect and analyse the related data to find out what the public wants or needs. In this context, political marketing offers political parties an opportunity to meet the demands of the people most effectively (Less-Marshment, 2003: 29).

The concept of marketing has evolved beyond traditional products and services to include the offerings of non-profit organisations (Kotler and Levy, 1969). The scope of the marketing concept has gradually expanded to include goods or services and ideas, values, or organisations. The marketing techniques used to identify consumers’ needs, desires, and demands started to be also used by political actors. As a result, the product, price, distribution, and promotion marketing mix elements in the field of marketing have been reinterpreted from the political science perspective.

Thanks to the developing technology, new and different channels emerged to communicate with consumers, especially in the internet and digital tools. It is possible to resemble digital marketing with traditional marketing methods conducted through digital systems. Consumers having access to computers, smartphones, tablets, and internet-connected TVs at any time and anywhere, using digital marketing tools such as websites, social media, mobile ads and apps, online video, e-mail, blogs, and other digital platforms have increased their significance (Kotler, Armstrong, Harris, & He, 2020: 23-24). It is precisely what is happening once political actors use these new digital marketing channels to communicate and interact with their voters.

Conceptual Framework

Although political marketing, which emerged with the use of marketing techniques in politics, is a new concept, it has attracted the attention of academics and political actors in recent years. In particular, developing technology and increasing competition cause political actors to be more interested in political marketing.

Political parties are organised groups with a particular way of ideas and values and aiming to implement them in a country they intend to rule. Everyone with a political identity is a political actor at different levels (Aziz, 2011: 22). Political marketing includes applying marketing techniques by political actors and organisations to achieve their goals (Ingram and Lees-marshment, 2001: 44). Political marketing is the process by which political candidates and ideas are presented to the electorate to meet the voters’ political needs and thus to get their support (Cwalina, Falkowski, & Newman, 2009: 67). Political marketing can be defined as establishing, maintaining, and developing long-term relationships with voters to achieve their goals in the interests of society and political parties. This can be achieved by mutual exchange and fulfilling promises (O’Shaughnessy, 2001: 1048; Shama, 1976: 766).

Political marketing is how politicians use various marketing tools to communicate with their political markets (Antoniades, 2021: 60). It is assumed that political actors implementing political marketing tools generally perform better (Henneberg, 2006: 15). Political marketing is about communicating with voters and party members, media, and possible sources of funding (Lock and Harris, 1996: 14). Within the scope of political marketing, political parties and actors try to influence as many voters as possible, especially during election campaigns. Therefore, marketing techniques are essential for political candidates in catching the symbiotic relationship between marketing and politics (Mochla and Tsourvakas, 2020: 2). Today, political parties prefer mobile communication, a dimension of digitalisation in mass communication (Kamal, 2016: 5302).

The product, price, distribution, and promotion elements, known as the marketing mix, are reinterpreted within the scope of political marketing. Political parties have to use the elements of the political marketing mix effectively and efficiently to gain the voters’ support and competitive advantage. To briefly explain the scope of the elements of the political marketing mix;

Political Product: There are different opinions in the literature about the scope of political products. The political product is a broad product that covers the physical and institutional structure of the party, its leader, candidates, members, volunteer (or paid) personnel, symbols, party policies, projects, solution proposals, the services of the party, the ideas presented to the voters, the discourses, and even the attitudes and behaviours of the party representatives. It is like a package that each element in it impacts the voters at different levels (Polat, 2015: 423). In general, the political product is a very complex element that makes voters believe it is beneficial if the candidate wins (Niffenegger, 1989: 47).

Political Price: The political price is the votes given to the candidate or the party during the election in return for the services promised by the political actors, the membership fees, and the services rendered to the party or the candidate (Tek, 1999: 42). In terms of political parties, price is an element that defines the expected income not only in money but also in votes (Farrell and Wortmann, 1987: 299). Within the scope of political marketing, what is actually meant as the price is the vote used to support the policies of the parties and candidates (Polat, 2015: 442).

Political Distribution: Political distribution is defined as the delivery of political products and related messages (party program, leader, candidate, practices, organisation) to the voters most shortly and conveniently, economically and effectively (Islamoğlu, 2002: 135). Political distribution includes the methods and channels used to personally communicate political actors with the electorate (Niffenegger, 1989: 49).

Political Promotion: Political parties should deliver their new products to their voters using the most appropriate and effective communication techniques (Ingram and Lees-marshment, 2001: 46). Promotion is generally accepted as the fundamental marketing element (Niffenegger, 1989: 49). The political promotion aims to draw attention to the political product, inform, promote, create sympathy, and sell (vote) the proposed political product package (Polat, 2015: 447). The primary purpose of political marketing is to produce and manage political products that can meet the demands of the targeted audience (Lees-marshment, 2018: 4). As a result, it is possible to define the concept of political marketing as a set of activities that start in the pre-election process, during the election process and after the election, to gain a competitive advantage in the political arena and to ensure that the voters act in line with the party’s preferences.

Digital Marketing

The concept of digital marketing has evolved from the marketing of goods and services through digital channels. It is defined as an adaptive, technology-enabled process in which organisations collaborate with customers and partners to create, communicate, share, and maintain common values for all stakeholders (Kannan and Li, 2017: 23).

Digital marketing is the management and execution of marketing using digital data and electronic media such as web, e-mail, interactive TV, wireless media in connection with customer characteristics and behaviours (Bhatia, 2017: 17; Charlesworth, 2021: 1). In recent years, marketers have been using many new communication channels along with traditional marketing methods, from creative websites and smartphone apps to blogs, online videos, and social media. These new channels offer the opportunity to send direct, personal, and interactive messages beyond sending messages to the masses (Armstrong and Kotler, 2014: 33). Thus, organisations can interact with the target audience (Zahay, 2020: 30).

Compared to traditional marketing, digital marketing enables faster and easier campaigns to be created, reaching a wider audience and measuring its effectiveness more easily (Rana et al., 2020: 6). Digital marketing is not meant to replace traditional marketing, but both should be used in communication with the customer (Kotler, Kartajaya, & Setiawan, 2017: 52). Digital marketing is not about technology but people, as in traditional marketing. In this context, digital marketing is about connecting people (marketers) with other people (customers) and increasing sales as a result (Ryan, 2021: 17).

According to the data in the report published by Hootsuite and Wearesocial in 2021, 59.5% of the world population of 7.83 billion are internet users, and 53.6% are active social media users. In the same report, 77.7% of Turkey’s population of 84.69 million are internet users, and 70.8% are active social media users. While the average daily internet usage in the world is 6 hours 54 minutes, it has been determined that Turkey is above the world average with 7 hours and 57 minutes. The most used social networks worldwide are Facebook, Youtube, Whatsapp, FB Messenger and Instagram.

The developments in technology and the increasing use of technology in recent years offer new opportunities for organisations to communicate with their target audiences. This is valid for political parties’ communication with their voters and society. Today, digital platforms are used to be aware of social events, follow the agenda, share their thoughts, communicate with others, and for many other reasons. Therefore, it is crucial for political parties to exist on digital platforms.

Literature Review

In recent years, there has been an increase in the number of studies on political marketing and digital marketing in national and international publications. Likewise, there are researches on the importance of digital marketing for political parties or the use of digital marketing channels by political parties. To start with the relevant studies in Turkey, Tan and Armutçu (2020), in their study examining the contributions of digital marketing to the field of political marketing, concluded that the two political parties that received the most votes in the 2018 Presidential and Parliamentary Elections actively employed digital marketing channels. In his research, Arğın (2019) comparatively analysed the parties’ websites with a group in the Grand National Assembly of Turkey during the 2019 local election process. As a result of the research, it has been determined that political parties instrumentalised their corporate websites intensively for propaganda and informing the public.

Yalçınkaya (2018) examined the use of digital marketing channels by the top three political parties in Turkey and found that these parties actively engage with digital marketing channels. Yalçınkaya and Ay (2017) developed a political marketing model for political parties based on the thesis that political marketing is a philosophy that should be applied not only during election periods but also throughout the years between elections. Sarıtaş (2016) determines the visual and technical criteria that should be on the websites of political parties. In addition, analyses have been made by determining the functionality and design functions (Güler and Ülker, 2010).


The aim of this research is to examine the political parties operating in the Turkish Grand National Assembly in terms of their usage of digital marketing. Digital marketing tools and channels offer essential opportunities to interact with citizens. Especially before the elections, it is vital for political parties to provide effective communication with their current and potential voters on the way to power. This study is important in terms of determining the ways in which political rivals communicate with citizens in a country where political competition is intense. This situation reveals the importance of the study for political parties.

The universe encompasses all research-related entities such as individuals or groups, institutions, and companies. The universe of this study consists of political parties operating in Turkey. When the relevant data are examined, there are a total of 123 active political parties (Supreme Court of Appeals, Chief Public Prosecutor’s Office, 2021). Due to time and cost constraints, the sample of the research includes the political parties represented in the Turkish Grand National Assembly (TBMM). The distribution of seats in the TGNA is given in the Table below. In this context, the sample of the research consists of 13 political parties represented in the Turkish Grand National Assembly.

Table 1: Distribution of MPs in the Parliament

Name of the Party Number of MPs Est. Date Number of Members
Adalet ve Kalkınma Partisi (AKP)

Justice and Development Party

286 14.08.2001 11.011.725
Cumhuriyet Halk Partisi (CHP)

Republican People Party

135 09.09.1992 1.299.235
Halkların Demokratik Partisi (HDP)

People’s Democratic Party

56 15.10.2012 41.022
Milliyetçi Hareket Partisi (MHP)

Nationalist Movement Party

48 07.07.1983 473.192
İYİ Parti (İYİP)

Good Party

36 25.10.2017 425.619
Türkiye İşçi Partisi (TİP)

Turkish Labour Party

4 07.11.2017 5.092
Memleket Partisi (MP)

Homeland Party

3 17.05.2021 12.992
Demokrat Parti (DP)

Democrat Party

2 23.06.1983 406.280
Zafer Partisi (ZP)

Victory Party

2 26.08.2021 0
Büyük Birlik Partisi (BBP)

Grand Union Party

1 29.01.1993 59.830
Demokrasi ve Atılım Partisi (DAP)

Democracy and Progress Party

1 09.03.2020 58.418
Demokratik Bölgeler Partisi (DBP)

Democrtic Regions Party

1 02.05.2008 7.017
Saadet Partisi (SP)

Felicity Party

1 20.07.2001 269.538
Yenilik Partisi (YP)

Novelty Party

1 20.07.2020 1.767
Bağımsız Milletvekilleri

Independent MPs

Total 582

Source: The author designed the Table according to the data available on the websites of TGNA and the Supreme Court of Appeals. The number of party members is given as from 04.10.2021.

Content analysis method, one of the qualitative research methods, was used in the research. Content analysis is a method of systematically, objectively, and numerically examining and analysing the variables in a text (Wimmer & Dominick, 2014: 159). For the research, a scanning model was applied. Scanning models aim to describe the past or current situation as it exists without changing or manipulating it. The event, individual or object that is the subject of the research is tried to be defined in its own conditions (Karasar, 2012: 77).

Results and Discussion

Usage of Websites by the Political Parties

A web page is a document defined by its URL in the World Wide Web, which can contain text, images, audio, and links to other pages (Özmen, 2009: 39). The website, on the other hand, consists of a group of web pages that are usually linked to each other and have a home page as a starting point (Brown, 2002: 2; Onursoy, 2001: 90).

The website is one of the most effective digital marketing channels where political parties can communicate directly with the target audience. Websites can be used as a communication channel or information platform in the internet environment (Aksoy, 2009: 41). The most important innovation brought by web pages is the use of many different forms of electronic data such as pictures, movies and video images, sound, and text, and enabling various users from different environments to access information independently of hardware and software (Erbaşlar and Dokur, 2012: 28).

Web pages serve to describe and introduce a candidate. It can also be used as a meeting place to enable potential voters to participate in campaigns (Güler and Ülker, 2010: 103). The increasing development and essential role of digital marketing tools, especially for services, has directed the attention of experts to research the factors that play an important role in creating efficient and quality websites (Mochla and Tsourvakas, 2020: 1). It is essential for political parties to have a user-friendly website in order to increase the effectiveness of digital marketing. Websites of political parties are useful for voters to access information about the party and candidates and influence their voting preferences (Jain, 2018: 404).

Political parties should consider websites as a central base that citizens can access anytime and anywhere. It is important for current and potential voters that all the information that is published on the websites are accessible to everyone. In particular, the opportunity of political parties to publish their political products through their websites offers the opportunity to express themselves better. In addition, websites can be used to support other promotional activities. Within the scope of political marketing, political parties appear before the voters with a political product package, within the political product, the party leader, party ideology, party policies, the history of the party, the solution proposals of the party, the goals of the party, the deputies of the party, the party organisations, the news of the party etc. It is a package consisting of an extensive range of many elements. The elements within the scope of the political product package have different levels of influence on the voters. Within the scope of the research, the institutional web pages of political parties were analysed in terms of political product package and content.

Table 2. Analysis Results of the Web Pages

Party Leadership + + + + + + + + + + + The webpage is not online. + +
Party Regulations + + + + + + + + + + + +
Party Instructions + + + + + + + +
Party Programme + + + + + + + + + + + +
History of the Party + + +
Party News + + + + + + + + + + + + +
Visions and Missions + + +
Party MPs + + + + + + + + +
Party Organization + + + + + + + + + +
Election Declarations + + +
Mobile Compatibility + + + + + + + + + + + + +
Foreign Language Option + + + + + +

 Source: The author designed the Table based on the data obtained from party webpages, as from 02.01.2022.

When Table 2 is examined, it is striking that political parties actively use their websites. In general, some functions are not working on the sites, while others are under construction. The necessary data could not be obtained because the website of the Democratic Regions party was not reachable.

The party leader, one of the most important elements of the political product package, is the centre of the websites of all political parties. One of the most important reasons for this positioning is that party leaders are influential on voter preferences in the Turkish political arena. There are party bylaws on the websites of all parties except for the İyi Party. The websites of political parties are mainly designed to be open to one-way communication and are used to inform voters. Likewise, party regulations and party schedules are mostly available on their website. Party histories are only available on CHP, MHP and DP websites.

All political parties aim to inform the voters about the activities of the party by intensively giving news about the party in accordance with the construction of their websites. Party targets are only available on AKP, CHP and MHP websites. Since the deputies of the party are one of the important elements of the political product package, almost all political parties have reserved a place for their own deputies on their websites. Election declarations, which generally include promises of political parties before the election, are not available on the websites of most parties. This may also be due to the fact that their party has not yet entered an election after its establishment. While there are election manifestos on the websites of the CHP and MHP parties, the visions to be achieved with Target 2023 are stated on the website of the AK Party.

Mobile compatibility, which can be defined as the ability of websites to be adjusted automatically according to phone or tablet screens, has been implemented in the websites of political parties in the sample. Each website was checked one by one via As a result of the control, it was determined that the websites of all parties were mobile compatible. As it is known that today people mostly prefer phones or tablets to access the internet, this situation is favourable for political parties. Thanks to mobile compatibility, voters can easily access the websites of political parties from small-screen devices. Finally, the foreign language option has been examined to understand the websites by voters who do not speak Turkish. While AKP, HDP, MHP, TİP, MP and SP parties have the option to translate the site into a foreign language, this option is not available for other parties.

Usage of Social Media

Social media is an umbrella concept that includes tools, services and applications that enable users to interact with other users by using network technologies (Boyd, 2008: 92). The concept of social media includes social networking sites, video sharing sites, blog or microbiology platforms that emerged in the early 2000s, using Web 2.0 technology and allowing users to create and share their own content. Having social media accounts has been inevitable for political actors who want to exist on the internet (Jain, 2018: 406). Recently, social media techniques have been used extensively in successful election campaigns, and the success of the elections has been attributed to the use of social networks (Aziz, 2011b: 108).

When the websites of political parties are examined, it is seen that there are social media applications that allow two-way communication with the voters on the home page. In this part of the research, social media applications on the websites of political parties will be examined. Social networking sites are applications that allow users to create personal profiles, invite their friends and colleagues to access their profiles, and send e-mails or instant messages among themselves (Kaplan and Haenlein, 2010: 63). Although there are many social networking sites or applications, the social networking sites used extensively by political parties will be examined here.

Founded by Mark Zuckerberg in 2004 for Harvard students to communicate, Facebook has quickly become a social network that allows users to communicate with others and exchange information all over the world. Over time, it has begun to be used not only by individuals but also by businesses and other organisations to communicate with their target audiences. Political actors share photos, send short messages, virtual gifts and invites via Facebook (Aziz, 2011b: 109). Twitter is a social networking application with all current events. The latest news, the newest brands or products, anything that happens about anyone, or anything is primarily shared on Twitter (Jain, 2018: 403). Founded in 2006, Twitter has transformed from a niche service to a massively used platform (Weller et al., 2014: 29). In the report published by Twitter in 2021, he stated that their aim is to serve social communication. They stated that they allow all people to produce, distribute and discover free information about the issues and events they care about (Dorsey, 2021: 4). Twitter has received significant attention from both mass media and communication experts due to its role in the political arena, especially in the election and campaign process (Weller et al., 2014: 36). Founded in 2010, Instagram is a social networking application that allows people to easily edit their photos, stories or status and share them with people in their network. Instagram, whose number of users has increased rapidly in a short time, is one of the popular sharing applications today. The social networking platform Instagram, where photos and videos are shared, allows users to communicate by sending, sharing, and liking pictures. Thanks to the increasing popularity of Instagram, it has become an ideal political marketing platform (Muñoz and Towner, 2017: 291).

Table 3. Analysing Results of Social Media Applications of Political Parties

Facebook Twitter Instagram
Followers Following Date of Est. Followers Following Date of Est. Number of Tweets Followers Following Date of Est. Number of Posts
AKP 3m 1 17.02.2011 2.832.725 401 01.07.2013 37.336 1,5m 27 17.01.2014 5.373
CHP 1,7m 18 08.02.2011 1.948.144 4 01.02.2011 41.126 515k 4 05.04.2016 2.237
HDP 1,2m 125 14.08.2013 1.153.047 179 01.08.2013 40.223 517k 52 26.02.2014 4.188
MHP 2,1m 0 24.12.2011 2.304.669 1 01.06.2010 32.212
İYİP 437k 1 29.08.2017 828.391 4 01.08.2017 7.422 298k 2 09.09.2017 1.322
TİP 34k 1 23.03.2018 167.164 6 01.08.2014 3.662 47k 3 24.03.2018 1.368
MP 14k 0 09.05.2021 52.626 18 01.02.2021 854 20k 1 05.11.2020 470
DP 5k 0 31.08.2016 7.686 26 01.08.2016 744 347 23 0
ZP 4,5k 2 14.04.2021 33.001 1 01.04.2019 580 16,2k 1 338
BBP 123k 2 03.05.2012 70.508 1 01.12.2011 14.850 20,7k 2 15.11.2015 3.205
DAP 80k 0 09.03.2020 328.546 87 01.03.2020 6.838 61,6k 1 07.03.2020 2.799
SP 191k 1 24.11.2009 19.620 31 01.11.2014 14.799 36,2k 5 02.07.2015 2.481
YP 1,4k 1 19.07.2020 1.734 1 01.07.2020 478 783 2 303

Source: The Table is designed by the author based on the data obtained from party webpages, as from 02.01.2022.

Although there are different social networking platforms on the websites of a few political parties, they are not included in the review because of not generally found in other parties. In addition, some social networking platforms are examined by the researcher directly from the application, although they are not included on the website of the political party. For example, the CHP and MHP’s websites do not have a link to their Instagram accounts. In addition, the Facebook link on the DP’s website leads directly to the address of the Chairman. In general, it has been observed that political parties heavily use social networking platforms that allow two-way communication.

When the data of Facebook, one of the social networking platforms, are analysed from the Table, it is seen that the majority of voters are in the AK Party. AK Party is followed by MHP, CHP and HDP, respectively. It was found that the least number of followers were in the Yenilik Party. It has been determined that political parties have their own Facebook account, which was founded in 2004 and whose number of users rapidly increases, and that they make extensive use of this social networking platform.

It is seen that the highest number of followers on Twitter are AK party, MHP, CHP and HDP, respectively. The least followers are in the Yenilik Party. When the membership dates are examined, it is seen that they quickly became members of Twitter, which was founded in 2006, in their political parties. According to the number of tweets, most tweets have been sent by the CHP. It is followed by HDP, AK Party and MHP, respectively. AK party has the most followers on Instagram, followed by HDP and CHP, respectively. Likewise, the AK Party has made the highest number of posts.

In the report published by Wearesoial in 2021, the most used social networking platforms in the 16-64 age group in Turkey have been found to be Instagram (89.5%), Facebook (79.0%) and Twitter (72.5%), respectively (Kemp, 2021: 47). In light of these data, it is crucial for political parties to share more on social networking platforms in order to gain a competitive advantage. It is seen that the number of followers of political parties on various social networking platforms is different. In this case, publishing the posts on different platforms is vital for more effective communication with the voters in general.

Founded in 2005 for the sharing of videos over the internet, YouTube has become widespread throughout the world in a short time. The platform, where amateur videos have been shared since the beginning, has proliferated in time, with the use of it for promotional purposes in institutions and organisations. Especially the fact that YouTube users are from different age groups has been effective in making it a suitable platform for marketing. The most used social media platform in Turkey was determined as YouTube with 94.5% (Kemp, 2021: 47).

Table 4. Analysis Results of YouTube Channel of Political Parties

Political Parties Number of Subscribers Number of Views Date of Est.
AKP 84k 114.820.434 28.02.2014
CHP 98,4k 71.032.857 17.09.2013
HDP 159k 81.863.549 28.10.2013
MHP 101k 47.438.469 21.10.2013
İYİP 44k 39.020.488 19.10.2017
TİP 10,8k 1.028.219 22.05.2018
MP 3,5k 106.309 07.11.2020
DP 483 143.487 29.11.2012
ZP 1,92k 38.769 14.04.2021
BBP 1,62k 336.272 21.10.2011
DAP 59,1k 33.513.297 10.03.2020
SP 32,2k 19.144.104 11.02.2013
YP 5.337 22.09.2020

Source: The Table is designed by the author by relying on the data taken from the YouTube channels of the political parties.

YouTube data is shown in Table 4, which shows that the first subscriber party is BBP. The party with the most subscribers is HDP with 159,000. The party whose shared videos are most viewed is the AK Party. Yenilik Party has no subscribers. In addition, it has been found out that the links of the YouTube channels of the MHP, İyi Party and Saadet party are not included in their websites.

An e-bulletin (e-mail newsletters) is a less complex version of a magazine, newspaper or report focused on a specific topic (Samara, 2005: 21). It is possible to establish easy personal communication with customers through e-mail newsletters (Ryan and Jones, 2009: 133). The e-bulletin offers political parties the opportunity to send information directly to the e-mail address of the target audience who wants to be informed about the developments. Since users voluntarily give their e-mail addresses and sign up for the e-bulletin list without being a member, it is more likely to reach the target audience directly.

Table 5. Analysis Results of E-Bulletins

E-Bulletins + + + + +

Source: It was arranged by the researcher according to the e-bulletin data on the websites of political parties.

Table 5 shows the e-bulletin subscription opportunities of political parties. Through the e-bulletin, political parties can easily and quickly send their innovations and developments to the people registered in the e-bulletin via e-mail. As seen in the Table, while AKP, CHP, IYI Party, BBP and DAP offer this opportunity, the rest does not have such a policy.


The concept of political marketing, which emerged with the use of modern marketing techniques in the field of politics, which adopts a customer-oriented understanding, has caused political parties to adopt a voter-oriented understanding. It is inevitable for political parties that want to come to power to adopt a voter-oriented approach to politics before, during and after the election. Digital marketing channels, which businesses use extensively to interact with their customers, have also been used by political parties to reach their voters in recent years. Thanks to digital marketing channels that provide two-way communication, voters can access the information they want, share this information on different platforms and add their own comments. In this period, when voters access information very easily and quickly, political parties must present their political products to their voters in an easily and quickly accessible way. In this context, digital marketing offers important opportunities to political parties. Website, social media, e-bulletin etc., applications are used extensively by political parties.

As a result of the research, it has been seen that political parties use digital marketing effectively. It has also been determined that the functions on the websites of some political parties do not work. It has been observed that Facebook and Twitter are used more intensively than Instagram. In addition, it has been found that YouTube, which is a video sharing site, is actively used by political parties. It has been determined that most political parties do not use e-bulletins that can be used to inform voters. It has been observed that political parties include leader-oriented news, which is a crucial element of the political product package.

Digital marketing will continue to evolve, leveraging new technologies such as artificial intelligence, big data, virtual reality, and cognitive computing. The adoption and application of these technologies, which are expected to shape marketing in the future, by political parties are essential for them to interact with the voters.


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